Dukes of Pomerania

From Academic Kids

Pomerania is a geographical and historical region in northern Poland and Germany, on the south coasts of Baltic Sea on both sides of the Oder River and reaches to the Vistula river in the east and Reknitz river in the west.

In the second half of 10th century Pomerania was part of Poland, but the bishopric of Kolobrzeg established in 1000 was destroyed in ca. 1005. In the 1030s Polish state was destroyed and fragmented into several provinces, but soon rebuild when Casimir I the Restorer was victorius in the battle with Mazovians and Pomeranians in 1047. Polish king Boleslaw Smialy (1058-1080) is reported to have lost control of Pomerania.

The first written trace of the Pomeranian monarch is the 1046 mention of Zemuzil dux Bomeranorum (Siemomysl, duke of Pomeranians). The Chronicle of the Polish dukes written in 1113 by so called Gallus Anomynous mentions several dukes of Pomerania: Swantibor, Gniewomir, and an unnamed duke besieged in Kolobrzeg.

In three military campaigns of 1116, 1119, 1121 entire Pomerania was conquered by the Polish duke Boleslaw the Wrymouth (Boleslaw Krzywousty), and divided into four parts: Eastern Pomerania with Gdansk was put under direct Polish control and the duke had nominated his governors. Middle Pomerania with Slupsk and Slawno was made a Polish fief under a Pomeranian duke Racibor I. Western Pomerania with Kamien, Kolobrzeg and Bialogard were made a Polish fief ruled by duke Warcisław I. Szczecin and Wolin were semi-independent city-republics being Polish fiefs.

Polish governors in Eastern Pomerania gradually gained more and more power and evolved into semi-independent dukes, who ruled the duchy until 1294. In various times they were vassals of Poland and Denmark. The duchy was temporarily split into districts of Gdansk, Bialogarda, Swiecie, and Lubieszewo-Tczew.

Warcislaw I of Western Pomerania gave birth to the Griffin family of dukes who ruled the duchy until 1637. They managed to gather various territories and that way they were vassals of Poland, Denmark, Saxony, Brandenburg and Roman Empire (Germany). The duchy was temporarily split into districts of Szczecin, Wolgast, Barth, Darlowo, Demmin, Slupsk and Stargard.

Ancestors of Racibor I ruled the Duchy of Middle Pomerania until 1238, and next the area was an object of competition between the Dukes of Western Pomerania, Eastern Pomerania, Rugen and Brandenburg.

The island of Rugen was conquered by Denmark in 1168 and the local ruler give birth to a dynasty of dukes of Rugen, vassals of Denish kings. In 1325 the Principality of Rugen fell to Pomerania.


Duchy of Pomerania (Eastern) - Ksiestwo Pomorskie (Wschodnie)

Duchy of Bialogarda/Belgard (Ksiestwo bialogardzkie)

Duchy of Gdansk/Danzig (Ksiestwo gdanskie)

Duchy of Lubiszewo (Ksiestwo lubiszewskie)

  • 1178-1200/1207 Grzymislaw II
  • 1215/1228-1266/1278 Sambor II
  • from 1266/1278 part of the Duchy of Eastern Pomerania

Duchy of Swiecie/Schwetz (Ksiestwo swieckie)

Duchy of Pomerania (Middle) or Slawno/Schlawe - Ksiestwo Slawienskie

Duchy of Pomerania (Western) - Ksiestwo Pomorskie (Zachodnie)

After 1202 Pomeranian Duchy is divided into several duchies, most important being Wolgast and Szczecin duchies, united into one Pomeranian state from time to time.

Duchy of Szczecin/Stettin (Ksiestwo Szczecinskie)

Duchy of Wologoszcz/Wolgast (Ksiestwo wologoskie)

Duchy of Bardo/Barth (Ksiestwo bardowskie)

Duchy of Darlowo/Ruegenwalde (Ksiestwo Darlowskie)

Duchy of Dymin/Demmin (Ksiestwo dyminkie)

Duchy of Slupsk/Stolp (Ksiestwo Slupskie)

Duchy of Stargard (Ksiestwo stargardzkie)

Principality of Rugia/Rugen/Rana - Ksiestwo Rugijskie/Ranskie

From 1325 Duchy of Wolgast-Rugen or Rugen-Bardo:

Further reading

  • Gerard Labuda (ed.), "Historia Pomorza", vol. 1-4, Poznan-Torun 1969-2003
  • Edmund Kopicki, "Tabele dynastyczne", "Wykazy panujacych", in: "Katalog podstawowych monet i banknotow Polski oraz ziem z historycznie z Polska zwiazanych", vol. IX, part I
  • Zugmunt Boras, "Ksiazeta Pomorza Zachdniego", Poznan 1969, 1978, 1996
  • Kazimierz Kozlowski, Jerzy Podralski, "Poczet Ksiazat Pomorza Zachdniego", KAW, Szczecin 1985
  • L. Badkowski, W.Samp. "Poczet ksiazat Pomorza Gdanskiego", Gdansk 1974
  • B. Sliwinski, "Poczet ksiazaat gdanskich", Gdansk 1997
  • Wojciech Myslenicki, "Pomorscy sprzymierzenscy Jagiellonczylow", Wyd. Poznanskie, Poznan 1979
  • J. Spors, "Podzialy administracyjne Pomorza Gdanskiego i Slawiensko-Slupksiego od XII do poczatkow XIV w", Slupsk 1983
  • K. Slaski, "Podzialy terytorialne Pomorza w XII-XII w.", Poznan 1960
  • Edward Rymar, Krewni i powinowaci ksiazat pomorskich w zrodłach sredniowiecznych (XII-początek XVI w.), Materialy Zachodniopomorskie, vol. XXXIpl:Książęta pomorscy

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